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The Recording Process Explained
by Tom Brusky

Latest revision: 2/21/19

Chapter 1 - Terminology
Chapter 2 - Before You Record: Preparation
Chapter 3 - The Recording Process, Step By Step
Chapter 4 - How Much Does It Cost To Make a Recording?
Chapter 5 - Money-Saving Tips and Options
Chapter 6 - The Art of Creating a Good Mix
Chapter 7 - Don't Be Intimidated!

█  Chapter 1 - Terminology

ALBUM: Some of us still think of a vinyl record when we hear the word "album", but an album is simply a collection of songs. An album can by a vinyl record, cassette tape, compact disc, or an internet download. Since CDs are still the most popular format for polka music, it's still relevant when bands to say they're going into the studio to "make a CD".

ENGINEER: The engineer is the person who executes the physical recording of the musicians. He preps the studio, sets up the mics, and operates the recorders. The producer and engineer often sit together behind the mixing console. The engineer works at the direction of the producer. The roles of the engineer and producer can sometimes overlap. Anytime an audio engineer offers a musically-creative suggestion, he is taking on a production role in the recording.

PRODUCER: As the leader of your polka band, you'll most likely assume the role as the producer of your band's recordings. The producer is the person in charge who makes all of the creative and business decisions that go into making a CD. The producer chooses and approves the songs to be recorded, the arrangements of the songs, the musicians who will perform and the instruments they will play, the graphic design, and all other decisions that lead to the end product. A CD may have more than one producer. Anyone who contributes ideas that significantly shape the sound or look of a CD, and/or contributes a significant amount of money toward the creation of the CD, may be classified as a co-producer.

SINGLE: A single is the opposite of an album — it's the creation and release of just one song..

█  Chapter 2 - Before You Record: Preparation

Plan your album:
Have your entire recording project mapped out on paper (see example at left) before you enter the studio. Know your songs, arrangements, keys, and who is going to sing and/or play each part in each song. The more your plan is inked on paper, the more smoothly the recording process will go. As your project's engineer, I will request a copy of this plan for myself so that I'll know how to set up the studio for your recording sessions.
Creative changes to the plan can be made during the recording process, but you still should have a written plan to follow. It is at this time that you should also begin thinking about the appearance of your CD. Start planning your cover design (get your band photos taken) and liner notes. Research song credits and any applicable licensing requirements.
Practice with your band:
Never come into a recording studio expecting that you and your band members will "wing it" as if you were playing a live gig. (Please read Chapter 4: Money-Saving Tips and Options for an explanation of why rehearsing with your band is a critical step in the recording process.)

█  Chapter 3 - The Polkasound Recording Process, Step by Step

Recording Step 1 - Recording the scratch tracks:

At Polkasound, we often start with scratch tracks. A scratch track is a rough, expendable take of a song crudely performed with a metronome and one or two instruments. What a scratch track does is allow the producer to lay down the foundation of the song — the key, tempo, and arrangement — and it gives the drummer something to follow when he records his drums. Usually the first day of recording a new project is spent with the accordion/concertina player in the band laying down scratch tracks for all of the songs.  (Please read the note about scratch tracks two paragraphs down.)
Recording Step 2 - Recording the drums:
After the scratch tracks are done, we always record the drums first for a very specific reason. Solo instrument and vocal tracks are very easy to patch together to fix mistakes, but drum tracks are more difficult to patch together. Therefore, we always give the drummer the most latitude by recording his tracks first. The drummer will hear the scratch tracks in his headphones while he records, helping him stay on tempo.
A note about scratch tracks:
Not everyone prefers using a metronome. Some bandleaders want their music to have natural fluctuations in tempo. Also, some drummers are uncomfortable with, or physically incapable of, holding a tempo to the rigidity of a metronome. In these situations, we skip the use of the metronome and instead record the drums while the accordion or concertina player is playing  live through the drummer's headphones. The advantage to simulating a live playing condition like this is that the drummer may feel more at ease setting the tempo rather than following it.
There are two disadvantages to not recording scratch tracks with a metronome. The first one is that some drummers have a tendency to speed up considerably. And this leads to the second disadvantage: editing. When a song stays on tempo, sections of individual tracks or sections of entire songs can usually be duplicated or moved around wherever needed. When a song fluctuates in tempo, however, copying or relocating sections of tracks/songs is usually not possible.
Recording Step 5 - Recording the bass:
My preference is to always record the bass instrument next. Bass guitar and tuba tracks are easy to edit so that they align perfectly with the drum tracks, giving the rest of the band members a solid foundation to follow when they record their parts.
Recording Step 6 - Recording the rest of the instruments and vocals:
There is no particular order at this point for which instruments should be recorded next, however, we'll typically record the lead accordions, horns, rhythm instruments, and vocals before recording any fill accordion work.

A note about fixing mistakes:
Long gone are the days when bands had to record together as a group, and if one musician made a mistake, the whole band had to record the entire song over. Because today's studio musicians typically record their parts while isolated from one another, fixing a mistake – whether it's just one note or several measures – has never been easier. Using a standard recording technique called "punching" you can retake just your mistakes instead of having to re-record the entire song. The result of punching is a seamless track, possibly full of retakes and fixes, but one that sounds flawless as if you performed it perfectly the first time.
Recording Step 7 - Editing (optional):
Recorded instruments and vocals can be edited for accuracy after they've been recorded. Editing is not a mandatory process, but it can give your recorded tracks extra polish. For example, errant percussion hits can be aligned to the beat, and the intonation of instruments and vocals can be adjusted to be more in tune.
Recording Step 8 - Mixing:
The mixdown process is when all of the individual instrument and vocal tracks are blended together. This is when the relative volumes of instruments and vocals are adjusted, and they receive processing and effects such as equalization and reverberation. The mixing process is done for each song individually and generally takes around thirty minutes per song, but it can take significantly more time to mix a complex arrangement.
Recording Step 9 - Mastering:
Mastering is the final process for your music. This is when the songs, which have just been mixed down, are recorded onto a CD master. The songs are placed in the desired order, blank space is added between them, and the relative volumes of each song are finely adjusted. This is the CD that you will provide to your duplicator. The CD master will become your property when your studio fees are paid in full.

A note about mastering:
If you're releasing your music online only, then mastering to a CD is not needed. We will instead provide you with the mastered tracks as uncompressed audio files.

█  Chapter 4 - How Much Does It Cost To Make a Recording at Polkasound?

Estimating the cost of making a recording is not easy because of the endless variables, but if you familiarize yourself with the different options available to you, an estimate becomes a little easier to make. Below are the key expenses of making a recording at Polkasound Productions.
Expense #1 - Recording Media: $0.00
This is actually no longer an expense at Polkasound. In the past, you would have needed to purchase the media required for recording your band, which would have been reel-to-reel tape, S-VHS digital audio tape, or a computer hard drive. All recording is now performed on our studio's PC, which has enough hard drive space to handle the recording needs of all of our clients, so there is no longer a need to purchase recording media. We will also regularly back up your project at no charge. For your convenience, we will indefintely keep your project's master recording files in storage, however, they will remain your intellectual property. Anytime you would like a copy of your project's master recording files, you're welcome to bring a 32GB or larger flash drive (USB 3.0 recommended) to the studio.

Expense #2 - Studio Time:
The studio recording rate at Polkasound is $30/hour.
If you want to whip together a live recording, studio time will be nominal. For a normal, multi-track studio recording, the amount of time spent recording can vary greatly. A typical polka band can generally expect to spend around eight hours recording in the studio for each instrument or vocal part. So, if you have seven parts (drums, bass, accordion, two vocals, piano, guitar) then you can estimate that your band will spend around 56 hours in the studio recording a typical-length CD. Keep in mind this is a very rough estimate. Well-rehearsed musicians can expect to use up significantly less studio time. Unprepared musicians will need more.
One important thing to note about recording at Polkasound is that studio time is always figured conservatively in favor of the client, so you never have to worry about watching the clock. At the end of the day, I'll look at how many hours were used for the session and deduct more than enough time to cover things like bathroom breaks and idle chat. You'll always get more recording time than what you pay for, guaranteed.
Expense #3 - Hiring Talent (optional):
$ Varies
Are you hiring any musicians to help out with your recording? Professional and semi-professional musicians may charge by the session or by the song whereas musician-friends of yours might not charge you anything. If you are interested in hiring musicians or vocalists to perform on your recording, be forthright about your willingness to pay them for their services, otherwise there's a good chance they'll be "too busy" to return your call.

A note about hiring talent:
If you would like me (Tom Brusky) to perform as a session musician on your recording at Polkasound
[I offer accordion, drums, bass guitar, tuba, piano, and virtual instrumentation] my services as a session musician are free. You pay only for the studio time needed to record the parts. I am also networked with other many other professional musicians and vocalists for hire.
Expense #4 - Editing (optional):
The main purpose of editing at this point is to polish the recorded tracks by fixing the tuning and timing of errant notes. The amount of time spent editing your band's recorded tracks is your call. If your band is professional and your tracks are really tight except for a few errant notes here and there, it would be worth it to fix those notes. If your band is amateur, then perhaps editing should be reserved for only the most errant of notes.
Expense #5 - Mixing:
Mixing is $30/hour. A mixdown session at Polkasound for a typical-length CD usually requires about five to ten hours ($150-$300).
Expense #6 - Mastering:
Mastering is $30/hour. Mastering for projects recorded at Polkasound usually requires only one to two hours ($30-$60.)
Expense #7 - Graphic Design:
Our fee for graphic design is $30/hour. A typical CD project (two-page insert, tray card, and CD) usually takes about five to ten hours to design ($150-$300) but can take more or less time depending on the complexity of the design. (See our Graphic Design page for examples of our work.)
Expense #8 - Licensing:
$ Varies
If you will be selling/distributing cover songs, you may need to license those songs. A license is a fee you pay to ensure that the copyright holders of those cover songs receive their due royalties. You can either choose to contact the copyright holders personally and ask for permission to record their songs and negotiate royalty fees, or you can pay a flat licensing fee to the Harry Fox agency ( The 2019 U.S. statutory rate for licensing is approximately nine cents per song. There is also a $15 filing fee per song. So let's say you are recording a CD in which seven songs require licensing, and you plan on duplicating 250 CDs:
7 songs x 9¢ = 63¢
x 500 CDs = $157.50
    +   7 songs x $15 filing fee = $105.00
Total: $262.50

A note about polka music licensing:
Polka music is quite different from other music genres in that many songs played and recorded by bands are either traditional folk songs in the public domain, or derivations of songs that have been erroneously or purposely renamed over the years. It is still your responsibility to do the best you can to research the songs you're recording to see who should be credited.
In this day and age, polka bands rarely profit from music sales. They mainly record for posterity and consider breaking even to be a success. This is one reason why many of us composers in the polka music circuit, myself included, freely allow fellow polka musicians to record our material for nothing more than a proper credit on the CD. We don't want our music to be a financial burden – we want it to be enjoyed. Still, there are a few composers in polka music who will request to paid a licensing fee. That is their legal right, and you are obligated to comply if you wish to record their songs.

Expense #9 - Duplication, Printing, and Packaging:
$ Varies
We have a solid working relationship with Media Service Group in Waukesha, Wisconsin, and recommend them for all of your printing and duplication needs. The quality of their products and services is top-notch. We'll work together with you and MSG so that you get the results you're looking for. MSG offers complete CD printing, duplication, and packaging services.

There are too many variables to mention that can affect the cost of the duplication and printing services, such as the size of the insert booklet, whether or not hard copy proofs are requested, clear trays vs. black trays, etc. For the sake of brevity, we will narrow down the pricing to what we consider a "typical CD" which includes the following:
  • Two-page insert (color on the outside, black & white on the inside)
  • Color tray card (blank on the backside)
  • Color printing directly on the CD
  • Clear jewel case with black tray
  • Shrinkwrapping

Quantity of 250 = Approximately $630 (based on 2017 prices)

Quantity of 500 = Approximately $985 (based on 2017 prices)
Quantity of 1000 = Approximately $1,150 (based on 2017 prices)

Please note that Media Service Group requires proof of licensing for all applicable material before manufacturing CDs.
Professional-quality, retail-ready CD, from start to finish:

Studio recording time: $1,440-$3,300
Mixing and mastering: $180-$360
Graphic design: $150-$300
Duplication and printing: $630-$1,150
Song licensing: $0-$1,900
TOTAL:  $2,400 - $7,010

Professional-quality CD only — no graphic design or duplication:

Studio recording time: $1,440-$3,300
Mixing and mastering: $180-$360
Song licensing: $0-$1,900
TOTAL:  $1,620 - $5,560

CD only (entire band recorded at one time), no graphic design, duplication, or licensing:
Studio recording time: $200-$300
Mixing and mastering: $150-$210
TOTAL:  $350 - $510

Please use these price ranges as guidelines only. They are based on very rough estimates. Actual costs will vary, and may vary greatly.
Expense #10 - Digital Distribution, Promotion, Tracking, Royalty Collection, etc. (optional)
$ Varies
Having a finished recording is only the end of the recording process. How you choose to market and promote your recording is up to you. We do not offer any services beyond the recording process, but, if you would like to know more about how to market and promote your finished product in the digital age, feel free to set up a studio consultation. We will discuss:
  • Registration with a performing rights organization (BMI, ASCAP, etc.)
  • ISRC registration
  • Nielsen SoundScan registration
  • Royalty collection
  • Digital distribution to major download and music streaming sites (Amazon, iTunes, Pandora, etc.)
  • UPC codes
  • Radio station promotional copies and one-sheets
  • Music retailers

█  Chapter 5 - Money-Saving Tips and Options

Okay, you've just looked at the estimated cost of making a recording, and you don't have an extra car sitting around to trade in for five thousand dollars. What can you do? The estimates given above are what you can expect to pay for a professional product on every level, from the quality of the sound to the quality of the packaging. But, maybe you don't need quality at quite that high of a level. There are a few tips and techniques for significantly reducing costs in the recording and CD manufacturing processes.
1.)  Be prepared!  Know the material well  [Important! Please read]

Without exaggerating, I can easily say that nine out of every ten musicians that come into the studio to record are not adequately prepared. They assume that years of playing onstage qualifies them as knowing the songs well enough for the recording studio. In reality, the longer a band has played together live, the more necessary it may be for them to rehearse, because they've likely been making the same mistakes over and over without realizing it.
The studio environment is very different from being onstage. When you play live, you are feeling the music more than listening to it, but when you're in the recording studio, everything you play goes goes under the microscope. Suddenly you hear, for the first time, that the guitar player is playing a minor chord where the accordion player is playing a diminished; the harmony vocalist is occasionally dropping down onto the melody line; the drummer is playing through clean breaks, etc. If you want your recording to sound professional, problems like these should be identified and addressed.
So, the single most money-saving advice I can give is to rehearse with an audio recorder. Get the entire band together at your house and record your songs live. Then play each song back several times, each time listening critically to a different part. Discover and correct as many problems as possible before coming into the recording studio. Since hardly any bands do this, literally a third of my time engineering a recording is often spent assisting unrehearsed musicians in figuring out the parts they should be playing. I don't mind providing that service, but it does add time to your studio bill.
2.)  Map out your project

Have each song mapped out on paper – the number of verses, repeats, key changes, instrument solos, etc. We all know what maps do; they keep people from getting lost. I cannot begin to count the number of times a producer accidentally recorded one verse too few or too many, and, if the arrangement could not be corrected with digital editing, the entire band had to come back in to re-record the song from scratch.
3.)  Choose the right musicians

If you plan on marketing your music beyond your local fan base in hopes of landing new gigs and getting radio airplay, you need to ask yourself this question: "Can my regular band members give me the sound I want for this recording?"  Your role as a producer is to make your product as good as possible. Doing that may require making some difficult business decisions.

It can be a very expensive waste of time to try to get more from a musician than what their level of talent can offer. A musician at or near a professional level can be expected to retake parts of a song until they get them perfected, and execute changes in their playing style to suit a particular song. You should not, however, expect the same from amateur or even many semi-pro musicians.
Some musicians don't take the recording process seriously — they won't rehearse beforehand, and they won't put forth their best effort in the studio. It is your responsibility to know the mindset of the musicians you're hiring.
4.)  Record your band live

Recording live will dramatically reduce studio time, however, there can be drawbacks. The main disadvantage to recording live in a smaller studio is loss of isolation over each recorded part, since the sounds coming from the instruments will bleed through the microphones of other instruments. Unless all of the instruments can be completely isolated from each other, a punch-in to fix a mistake on an individual instrument or vocal track can become noticeable.
Another disadvantage to recording live is that a lot of microphones will be needed at the same time which can tax a studio's microphone supply beyond its limits. Most studios only have a limited number of "studio quality" microphones and mic preamps, and must resort to "stage quality" mics and preamps to meet the extra demand. Additional mics can be rented at additional cost.
Obviously, when you have a larger group such as a brass band, recording live is the only practical option. But, for smaller ensembles like four- or five-piece polka bands, recording live is only recommended as a creative option when every musician knows the material perfectly and can execute it well as a group.

5.)  Design and print your own CD labels and covers

If you own a printer and some basic graphic design software, you can design your own CD covers, tray cards, and labels, and print them out at home. This can save a few hundred dollars, but there are two major disadvantages. The first disadvantage is that your CDs can, of course, look like they were printed on a home printer. That alone will directly affect sales, since the quality of a CD's cover is often construed as a reflection of the quality of the music inside. The other disadvantage is that you will need to cut out, fold, and insert every cover and tray card, and apply every CD label, on your own. This is a big job that can take several hours per day over several days to accomplish.
6.)  Burn your own CD copies
Out of all the money-saving tips we offer, this one we recommend the least. Unless you use the right software, hardware, and professional-grade CD-Rs, your home-burned CDs will risk having too many CD player incompatibility issues. Still, if you choose to burn your own CDs, we recommend Taiyo Yuden CD-Rs (specifically model #JCDR-ZZSB.) Avoid Memorex.
7.)  Consider recording a single rather than an album
Even though CDs are still the most popular form of recorded music among polka music consumers, the compact disc is no longer the most popular form of music distribution worldwide. Music subscription services such as Spotify and Pandora have recently surpassed CD sales to become the number one method by which music is purchased. Music subscription services are still largely uncharted territory for polka bands, which is understandable given that 95% of polka music consumers are still buying compact discs, but when you release your music via digital distribution, your music is being made highly accessible. That doesn't automatically mean you'll make money, but it will increase your exposure far beyond the dancers at your local American Legion Post. If you are on the fence about investing in the studio time needed to make a sixteen-song CD, consider making a single for digital distribution instead.

█  Chapter 6 - The Art of Creating a Good Mix

I am devoting an entire chapter to mixing, because I want to explain the reasons why a mix may not always please every musician in the band.
The goal of creating a good mix is to make the music sound most pleasing to the general public – not the drummer, not the guitar player, not the sax player, but rather the people who will be buying the CD and listening to the music on the radio. This is very important to mention, because sometimes the musicians in the band will hear the final mix of their album and not always agree with what they hear.
When people listen to music on the radio or on their iPod, they don't focus on every little thing going on in the background — they hear the song as a whole. They follow the melody and feel the beat. But this is usually not how musicians listen to mixes of their own music. Since musicians are so familiar with their own music, instead of listening to a song as a whole, they instinctively anticipate and tune into specific parts of it (often their own) and tend to over-focus on those parts. A common complaint I hear is, "I think I should be louder."

Creating a good mix is not about featuring every instrument in the band throughout each, entire song. This is a common mistake made by inexperienced engineers, and the result is a very cluttered, busy-sounding recording. Rather, a good audio mix is like a television show in which you have one or two lead actors and everyone else is a supporting actor. In an audio mix, the melody instruments and vocals are usually your lead actors. Everything else – rhythm, counter melodies, harmonies, arpeggios, fills, pads, etc. – are supporting actors. They are not intended to share the limelight.

The art of mixing is more about what not to feature in a song than what to feature. A good mix usually requires pushing select recorded parts into the background, and using them to fill out the body of the music and help build a stereo landscape, and nothing more. The instruments are still there, but they are not going to stand out. Instead, they'll play a vital role in providing a foundation on which the melody resides.
To achieve a good mix is an art that takes years to develop. Among other things, an engineer must know...
  • the frequency ranges of specific instruments and vocals will "sit" in a mix relative to their apparent volumes
  • to use equalization and dynamics processing to help define or blend instruments and vocals
  • to design a stereo landscape so that the recording sounds spacious, yet balanced
  • effects, such as reverbs and delays, can work both with and against each other
  • to manipulate the recorded instruments at different times to create contrast which combats ear fatigue
In a good audio mix, there can't be too much or too little bass or treble, there can't be too much or too little reverb, dynamics must be tastefully contained, the lyrics must be understandable, but most importantly, the instruments must be balanced to support the melody in a way that the general public is acclimated to hearing. To achieve this quality – and this is very important – the engineer must approach the mix from a completely neutral, unbiased perspective.
Musicians typically critique mixes of their band's music from a biased perspective. They over-focus on specific instruments, which makes them susceptible to ear fatigue. After listening for a half hour or more, ear fatigue will lead to everything sounding flat, and the musician will begin wanting to hear more reverb, more bass, more treble, more guitar, more sax, etc.
A third problem of musicians critiquing mixes of their own music occurs when the musicians are not listening to the music in a proper environment. Many times musicians will listen to a mix of their band's music in their car while driving 65 MPH down the highway, and then call the producer or engineer to complain they can't hear anything going on in the background. It is impossible to judge the quality of a mix in a moving car when you're dealing with road and wind noise. A quiet environment is required.
As the engineer of your recording at Polkasound, I will never give you a mix of which I do not approve. I will put my 25+ years of experience to good use and have very clear reasons for why everything sounds the way it does when I mix your project, however, you as the producer will always have the final say. If you or the musicians in your band request that I execute changes in the mix that I would otherwise not suggest, it will be your call whether to trust my judgment or appease theirs.
My reason for writing this chapter is to give you, the producer of your band's upcoming project, a forewarning of this potential scenario. Be prepared to take charge, because all final decisions will be yours to make.

█  Chapter 7 - Don't Be Intimidated!

This guide was written to help a professional band create a professional product. If you're admittedly a hack musician or belong to an amateur group interested in recording mainly for the enjoyment of family and friends, your only expectation in the recording studio will be to play from the heart and have fun!

Copyright © 2007-2019 Tom Brusky LLC.  All rights reserved.